Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F. Place a baking dish, roasting pan or dutch oven on a baking sheet. Open the can of beer and take a few sips and/or pour about 1/4 of it into the dish or pan. Set the can in the center of the dish.
Remove the giblets and any other parts of the chicken and discard or set aside for another use. If desired, wash the chicken but either way – pat it TOTALLY dry with paper towels. You don’t want one speck of liquid.
In a small bowl, stir together the sugar, salt, pepper, paprika, garlic powder, onion powder and chili powder.
In another bowl, add the softened butter. Add a few pinches (about 1/3 of the mix) of the spice mix to the butter and stir together until combined and smooth. Gently lift the skin of the chicken and rub the butter all over the breasts (UNDER the skin) and the thighs, if you can get to them. You only have to add a thin layer because much of the butter will run out of the chicken as it cooks. Push it up underneath the skin as far as it can go. Slice one of the limes into 1/8-inch slices and slide them up underneath the skin – as many as you can fit in one layer. Gently sit the chicken on top of the can of beer which is in the dish (OMG, so many things), the beer can going into the cavity of the chicken. Or you might have one of those fancy contraptions that makes beer can chicken easier.
Rub the outsides with olive oil – don’t miss a spot! And rub the remaining spice rub over top. Slice the other lime in half and shove it face down in the top cavity of the chicken (where the neck would be). Roast the chicken for 1 hour and 15 minutes. When finished, carefully remove the pans from the oven and let the chicken rest for about 20 minutes. I use kitchen tongs and my hands to gently remove the chicken from the can (it may take some wiggling) – discard the can and slice/serve the chicken as you wish.